The autonomic nervous system (ANS or visceral nervous system or involuntary nervous system) is the part of the peripheral nervous system that acts as a control system, functioning largely below the level of consciousness, and controls visceral functions. The ANS effects heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, salivation, perspiration, pupillary dilation, micturition (urination), and sexual arousal. Most autonomous functions are involuntary but a number of ANS actions can work alongside some degree of conscious control. Everyday examples include breathing, swallowing, and sexual arousal, and in some cases functions such as heart rate.
Within the brain, the ANS is located in the medulla oblongata in the lower brainstem. The medulla's major ANS functions include respiration (the respiratory control centre, or "rcc"), cardiac regulation (the cardiac control centre, or "ccc"), vasomotor activity (the vasomotor centre or "vmc"), and certain reflex actions (such as coughing, sneezing, vomiting and swallowing). These then subdivide into other areas and are also linked to ANS subsystems and nervous systems external to the brain. The hypothalamus, just above the brain stem, acts as an integrator for autonomic functions, receiving ANS regulatory input from the limbic system to do so
The ANS is classically divided into two subsystems: the parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) which operate independently in some functions and interact co-operatively in others. In many cases the two have "opposite" actions where one activates a physiological response and the other inhibits it. An older simplification of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems as "excitory" and "inhibitory" was overturned due to the many exceptions found. A more modern characterisation is that the sympathetic nervous system is a "quick response mobilising system" and the parasympathetic is a "more slowly activated dampening system", but even this has exceptions, such as in sexual arousal and orgasm where both play a role. The enteric nervous system is also sometimes considered part of the autonomic nervous system, and sometimes considered an independent system.
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Health system

Health System
A good health system delivers excellent services to all people, when and wherever they require them. The exact configuration of providers varies from nation to country, but in all cases requires a robust financing mechanism; a well-trained and adequately paid workforce; dependable data on which to base decisions and policies; effectively maintained services and logistics to provide quality medicines and technologies.

A wellness program, also often known as healthcare procedure could be the organization of people, institutions, and sources to provide wellness care providers to meet the overall health demands of target populations.
There exist a broad number of overall health programs across the globe, with as numerous histories and organizational structures as there are actually nations. In some countries, overall health method preparing is distributed amid market place participants. In many others, there exists a concerted work among governments, trade unions, charities, religious, or other co-ordinate bodies to supply planned wellness care solutions targeted on the populations they serve. Nonetheless, well being care planning continues to be described as generally evolutionary in lieu of revolutionary.
Health care and well being services managers also identified as healthcare executives or healthcare administrators, program, direct, and coordinate healthcare and overall health solutions. They may control an entire facility, specialize in managing a particular clinical spot or department, or manage a health care practice to get a group of doctors.
Well being info management experts system information techniques, produce well being policy, and determine current and potential details requires. In addition, they could apply the science of informatics for the collection, storage, use, and transmission of information to meet the legal, specialist, ethical and administrative records-keeping demands of wellbeing care delivery. They function with clinical, epidemiological, demographic, economic, reference, and coded healthcare information.
06/12/2013 02:44:34

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